Scholarly Societies Project

Chronicle for Societies Founded from 1780 to 1799
76 Societies
66 History Pages
35 Websites
Last Updated: 2007, July 28

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Date
Founded
Seat
Society Name
1780
United States
of America
Cambridge, MA
American Academy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS)
Website.
Spain
Segovia
Real Sociedad Económica de los Amigos del País de la Provincia de Segovia (Royal Economic Society of the Friends of the Land of the Province of Segovia)
[This Society was founded in 1780 and ceased around 1793. In 1875 another society, the Sociedad Económica Segoviana de Amigos del País was created in memory of the 1780-1793 society; this later society appears to have existed from 1875 to about 1917.]
Italy
Naples
Reale Accademia delle Scienze e Belle-Lettere di Napoli (Royal Academy of Sciences and Humanities of Naples)
[The Academy was founded on 1780, July 5 as the Reale Accademia delle Scienze e Belle-Lettere di Napoli on the basis of a sovereign resolution of 1778, June 22. The Academy had ceased to exist by 1788. This Academy was, to some extent, a precursor to the Società Reale di Napoli, founded in 1808.]
Scotland
Edinburgh
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
Website
1781
Austria
Vienna
Freimaurerloge "Zur wahren Eintracht" (Free Masonic Lodge "True Harmony")
[The Freimaurerloge "Zur wahren Eintracht" was one of few European Masonic lodges during the Enlightenment that aspired to be, and functioned to some degree as, scholarly societies. It was founded on 1781, March 12, and ceased to exist independently on 1785, December 28, when it was merged with the"Zu den drey Adlern" and "Zum Palmbaum" Lodges to form the "Zur Wahrheit" Lodge.]
England
Manchester
Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester
[Now called: Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society.]
Website
United States
of America
Massachusetts
Massachusetts Medical Society (MMS)
Website
1782
Italy
Modena
Accademia Nazionale delle Scienze detta dei XL (National Academy of Scienes, known as the Forty)
[The Society was founded in 1782 as the Società Italiana (Italian Society). In 1867 it became the Società Italiana delle Scienze (detta dei XL). In 1950 it became the Accademia Nazionale dei XL. And by 1979 it had taken its current name, Accademia Nazionale delle Scienze detta dei XL.]
Website
1783
Netherlands
Amsterdam
Amsteldamsch Dicht- en Letteroefenend Genootschap: Wij Streven naar de Volmaaktheid (Amsterdam Society for Poetry and Literature: We Strive for Perfection)
[This Society was founded in Amsterdam in 1783. In 1800 it merged with two other major literary societies: (1) Studium Scientiarum Genetrix (founded in 1773 in Rotterdam), and (2) Kunst Wordt door Arbeid Verkreegen (founded in 1766 in Leiden) to form the Bataafsche Maatschappij van Taal- en Dichtkunde, which in 1806 was renamed the Hollandsche Maatschappij van Fraaije Kunsten en Wetenschappen (Holland Society for Liberal Arts and Sciences).]
Spain
Granada
Real Academia de Medicina y Cirugía de Granada (Royal Academy of Medicine and Surgery of Granada)
[The Academy was founded in 1783, according to the Instituto de España (see the Academias Asociadas section.]
[No website found, as of 2007, July 28.]
Scotland
Edinburgh
Royal Society of Edinburgh (RSE)
[The RSE was founded on 1783, March 29. Its precursor was the
Philosophical Society of Edinburgh, (1731-1783).]
Website
Switzerland
Lausanne
Société des Sciences Physiques de Lausanne (Society of Physical Sciences of Lausanne)
[This Society was founded in 1783 and ceased in 1790.]
England
London
Society for the Improvement of Medical and Chirurgical Knowledge
[This Society was founded in 1783 and was dissolved in 1818.]
1784
India
Calcutta
Asiatic Society
[The Society was founded in 1784 as the Asiatick Society. It later had the following names: (1) Asiatic Society; (2) Asiatic Society; (3) Asiatic Society of Bengal; (4) Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal; and (5) Asiatic Society (its current name).]
Website
Scotland
Edinburgh
Highland Society of Edinburgh
[Now called Royal Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland.]
Website
Scotland
Perth
Literary and Antiquarian Society of Perth
[According to the Arts & Heritage section of the Perth & Kinross Council (PKC), the Society was founded in 1784 and was active in research and collecting from that time, and throughout the 19th century; it evidently disbanded in 1914, since it handed its building and collections over to Perth Town Council in that year. In 1827 they published a volume of Transactions.]
Ireland
Dublin
Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI)
Website
Germany
Leipzig
Societas Philologica Lipsiensis = Philologische Gesellschaft zu Leipzig (Philological Society in Leipzig)
[The Society was founded in 1784 as the Societas Philologica Lipsiensis = Philologische Gesellschaft zu Leipzig. On 1809, December 4, it was elevated to the status of a Königliche Philologische Seminarium. The Society edited a monograph as late as 1897, but we have no evidence that the Society survived past 1897.]
1785
United States of America
Philadelphia
Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture
Website.
Ireland
Dublin
Royal Irish Academy (RIA) = Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann)
Website
Italy
Torino
Accademia di Agricoltura di Torino (Academy of Agriculture of Torino)
[The Academy was founded on 1785, May 24 as the Società Agraria di Torino (Agricultural Society of Torino). It is now called Accademia di Agricoltura di Torino (Academy of Agriculture of Torino).]
Website
Denmark
Copenhagen
Societas Disputatoria Medica Haunienis (Medical Debating Society of Copenhagen)
[This Society was founded in 1785 and ceased in 1787.]
1786
Italy
Genova
Istituto Nazionale Ligure (National Ligurian Institute)
[The Academy was founded in 1786 as the Società Patria di Arti e Manifatture (or Società Patria delle Arti e Manifatture). It later had the names (1) Istituto Nazionale Ligure; (2) Istituto Lígure; (3) Accademia Imperiale delle Scienze e Belle Arti di Genova; and (4) Accademia delle Scienze, Lettere ed Arti di Genova. It ceased in 1815.]
Switzerland
Bern
Naturforschende Gesellschaft in Bern (Scientific Society in Bern)
[The Society was founded in 1786 as the Privatgesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde in Bern. In 1815, it became the Naturforschende Gesellschaft in Bern, also known as Naturforschende Gesellschaft Bern.]
[No website found, as of 2004, April 9.]
Sweden
Stockholm
Svenska Akademien (SA) (Swedish Academy)
[The Academy was founded in 1786 as the Svenska Academien. It is now called Svenska Akademien.]
Website
1787
United States
of America
Philadelphia
College of Physicians of Philadelphia (CPP)
Website
Denmark
Copenhagen
Societas Philiatrica (Society of Medical Knowledge = Arzneykundige Gesellschaft)
[This Society was founded in 1787, and ceased in 1791. It is not to be confused with a society of the same name founded in 1829.]
1788
Venezuela
Caracas
Colegio de Abogados del Distrito Federal (College of Advocates of the Federal District)
Website.
England
London
Linnean Society of London (LSL)
Website
France
Paris
Société Linnéenne de Paris (Linnean Society of Paris)
[The Society was founded in 1788, and ceased its activity with the onset of the French Revolution. After attempts to revive it from 1793 to 1797, it was finally resurrected in 1820, and was active until about 1833. A society of the same name was founded in 1866 by Baillon, but apparently without making reference to this earlier society.]
France
Paris
Société Philomathique de Paris (Philomathic Society of Paris)
[The Society was founded on 1788, December 10.]
Website
1789
Germany
Leipzig
Linnéische Societät zu Leipzig (Linnean Society in Leipzig)
[This Society was founded on 1789, January 31, and was also referred to as a Naturforschende Privatgesellschaft zu Leipzig. It ceased to exist soon after 1802.]
India
Bombay
Medical and Literary Society of Bombay
[This Society evidently ceased to exist before or soon after the founding in 1804 of the Literary Society of Bombay, which acquired the Library of the Medical and Literary Society of Bombay, as described in the Asiatic Society of Bombay history page.]
Denmark
Copenhagen
Naturhistorie-Selskabet (Natural History Society)
[The Society was founded in 1789, and to some extent functioned as a private university. In 1805 (or 1804) it was merged with Det Kongelige Naturhistoriske Museum.]
1790
Netherlands
Amsterdam
Genootschap ter Bevordering van Natuur-, Genees- en Heelkunde (Society for the Benefit of Physics, Medical Science and Surgery)
[The Society was founded on 1790, March 9 as the Genootschap ter Bevordering der Heelkunde te Amsterdam. In 1840 it became the Genootschap ter Bevordering der Genees- en Heelkunde te Amsterdam. In 1870 it became the Genootschap tot Bevordering der Natuur-, Genees- en Heelkunde te Amsterdam, also known as the Genootschap ter Bevordering van Natuur-, Genees- en Heelkunde te Amsterdam.]
Website
Netherlands
Amsterdam
Gezelschap der Hollandsche Scheikundigen (Society of Hollandish Chemists)
[This Society was founded in late 1790 or early 1791. Its members were among the earliest supporters of the new chemical system of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794). It had effectively ceased by 1802.]
Germany
Regensburg
Regensburgische Botanische Gesellschaft (Regensburg Botanical Society)
[The Society was founded on 1790, May 14, evidently as the Regensburgische Botanische Gesellschaft. It later had the names: (1) Botanische Gesellschaft in Regensburg; (2) Königliche Botanische Gesellschaft in Regensburg; (3) Königlich-Bayerische Botanische Gesellschaft in Regensburg; and (4) Regensburgische Botanische Gesellschaft (its current name).]
Website
France
Paris
Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris (Natural History Society of Paris)
[In 1790, this Society emerged from the Société Linnéenne de Paris (1788 - 1790?; 1820 - 1833?). The Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris appears to have survived until 1834.]
Switzerland
Geneva
Société des Naturalistes Genevois (Society of Naturalists of Geneva)
[Now called Société de Physique et d'Histoire Naturelle de Genève (Society of Physics and Natural History of Geneva).]
Website.
1791
Ireland
Dublin
Apothecaries' Hall
[No website found, as of 2007, July 28.]
United States
of America
Massachusetts
Massachusetts Historical Society (MHS)
Website
Germany
Potsdam
Märkische Ökonomische Gesellschaft zu Potsdam (Margravial Economic Society in Potsdam)
[This Society was founded on 1791, August 31 as the Märkische Ökonomische Gesellschaft zu Potsdam, also written as the Märkischen Oekonomischen Gesellschaft zu Potsdam. It later had the following names: (1) Königlich Preußische Ökonomische Gesellschaft zu Potsdam und Frankfurt an der Oder; (2) Königlich Preußischen Märkischen Ökonomischen Gesellschaften zu Potsdam und Frankfurth an der Oder; (3) Königlich-Preußische Märkische Ökonomische Gesellschaft zu Potsdam; (4) Landwirthschaftlicher Provinzial-Verein für die Mark Brandenburg und Niederlausitz; and (5) Landwirthschaftlicher Central-Verein für den Regierungsbezirk Potsdam. We have found no trace of its existence past 1889.]
United States
of America
Concord
New Hampshire Medical Society
Website.
Italy
Chiavari
Società Economica di Chiavari (Economic Society of Chiavari)
[The Society was founded 1791, April 15.]
Website
United States
of America
New York City
Society for the Promotion of Agriculture, Arts and Manufactures
[The Society for the Promotion of Agriculture, Arts and Manufactures was founded in New York City in 1791 as a learned society; in 1797 the Society moved to Albany. In 1804, it changed its name to the Society for the Promotion of Useful Arts (SPUA). In 1824, the SPUA ceased its activities as a learned society when it merged with the Albany Lyceum of Natural History (a museum founded in 1823) to become the Albany Institute, a museum that exists to the present day.]
1792
France
Paris
Athenée des Arts de Paris (Athenaeum of Arts of Paris)
[The Athenaeum was founded in 1792 as the Lycée des Arts de Paris. In 1802 it became the Athenée des Arts de Paris and functioned as a scholarly society. Around 1834, it began using the name Athenée des Arts, Sciences et Belles-Lettres de Paris. It survived until 1866.]
United States
of America
Philadelphia
Chemical Society of Philadelphia
[The Society was founded in 1792 and ceased to exist, probably around 1803.]
England
Exeter
Literary Society in Exeter = Society of Gentlemen at Exeter
[The Society was founded in 1792 and ceased to exist in 1808.]
Livonia
Riga, then Dorpat
Livländische Gemeinnützige und Ökonomische Sozietät
(Livonian Public Welfare and Economic Society)
[This Society was founded in Riga on 1792, October 18 and moved to Dorpat [now known as Tartu, Estonia] in 1813. It has had the following names: (1) Livländische Gemeinnützige und Oekonomische Societät; (2) Liefländische Gemeinnützige und Ökonomische Societät; (3) Kaiserliche, Livländische, Gemeinnützige und Ökonomische Sozietät in Dorpat; (4) Kaiserliche Livländische Gemeinnützige und Oekonomische Societät; (5) Kaiserliche Livländische Gemeinnützige und Ökonomische Sozietät; and (6) Livländische Gemeinnützige und Ökonomische Sozietät. In 1939, the Society was dissolved.]
United States
of America
Massachusetts
Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture (MSPA)
[The Society was responsible for numerous scholarly publications, primarily in the 19th century ( Harvard Univ. cat.). The headquarters of the Society are the Timothy Pickering Library in the Wenham Museum (see the section entitled The Collections).]
[No website found, as of 2007, July 28.]
Spain
Zaragoza
Real Academia de Nobles y Bellas Artes de San Luis (Royal Academy of Noble and Fine Arts of San Luis)
[The Academy was founded on 1792, April 17.] Website
France
Rouen
Société Libre d'Émulation de la Seine-Maritime (Free Competitive Society of Seine-Maritime)
[The Society was founded in 1792. We do not have its founding name, but we know that by 1797 it was called Société d'Émulation de Rouen (Competitive Society of Rouen). It went through a number of name changes in the 19th century, and in 1982 became the Société Libre d'Émulation de la Seine-Maritime.]
Website
1793
England
Board of Agriculture
[Despite its name, this was a chartered society. It was founded in 1793, and ceased in 1822. It was, in some sense, a precursor to the Royal Agricultural Society of England.]
Netherlands
Den Haag
Koninklijke Maatschappij voor Natuurkunde onder de Zinspreuk Diligentia (Royal Society for Science with the Motto "Diligentia")
Website
Germany
Jena
Naturforschende Gesellschaft zu Jena (Natural Science Society in Jena)
[This Society was founded on 1793, July 14; it ceased in 1850.]
1794
England
London
Society for Philosophical Experiments and Conversations
[This so-called Society was more a course of lectures given by one person, Bryan Higgins, M.D. (1737?-1820), than it was a society in the received sense, and its publication, the Minutes, was more a syllabus for the course than it was a journal that published articles by a number of people. Nevertheless, Reuss treats it as a society and indexes the articles in its publication. The course began in 1794 and was not continued past 1796.]
1795
France
Paris
Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques (ASMP) (Academy of Ethics and Political Science)
[The Academy was created in 1795 as one of three classes within the Institut de France. It was eliminated in 1803 in the reorganization of the Institut by Napoleon. It was restored in 1832 by François Guizot.]
Website.
France
Paris
Institut de France (Institute of France)
[The Institut was founded in 1795 as the Institut National des Sciences et Arts (National Institute of Sciences and Arts). It went through a number of name changes in the 19th century (mostly related to regime change in France), until it took its current name, Institut de France (Institute of France), in 1871.]
Website.
Netherlands
Leeuwarden
Natuurkundig Genootschap te Leeuwarden (Physical Society of Leeuwarden)
[This society appears to have existed until at least 1959, according to the archives section of the website of the Historisch Centrum Leeuwarden (choose Onderzoek, then Overzicht collecties, then Overzicht Archieven). Some historical detail on the Society is given in an article by Ilja Nieuwland.]
[No website found, as of 2007, July 28.]
Italy
Trento
Società Filarmonica di Trento (Philharmonic Society of Trento)
[The Society is membership-based, and is involved not only in the organizing of concerts, but also the cultivation of musicological research.]
Website
1796
France
Paris
Académie Nationale de Pharmacie (ANP) (National Academy of Pharmacy)
[The Academy was founded in 1796 as the Société Libre des Pharmaciens de Paris (Free Society of Pharmacists of Paris). In 1803 it became the Société de Pharmacie de Paris; in 1946 it became the Académie de Pharmacie; and in 1979, it became the Académie Nationale de Pharmacie.]
Website
France
Paris
Société de Médecine de Paris (Society of Medicine of Paris)
[The Society was founded on 1796, March 22 as the Société de Santé de Paris (Society of Health of Paris). In 1797, it was renamed Société de Médecine de Paris.]
Website
France
Paris
Société Médicale d'Émulation de Paris (Competitive Medical Society of Paris)
[We have found no evidence that the Society survived past 1877.]
Sweden
Stockholm
Kungliga Krigsvetenskapsakademien (Royal Swedish Academy of War Sciences)
[This Academy was founded in 1796 as the Svenska Krigsmanna Sällskapet (Swedish War Sciences Association). It is now called Kungliga Krigsvetenskapsakademien (Royal Swedish Academy of War Sciences).]
Website
1797
Germany
Jena
Großherzogliche Societät für die gesammte Mineralogie in Jena (Grand-Ducal Society for General Mineralogy in Jena)
[The Großherzogliche Societät für die gesammte Mineralogie was founded in Jena in 1797 and existed until 1885. It was also known as the (1) Societät für die Gesammte Mineralogie zu Jena; (2) Herzogliche Societät für die Gesammte Mineralogie in Jena; and (3) Großherzoglich-S. Societät für die Gesammte Mineralogie in Jena.]
Canada
Toronto
Law Society of Upper Canada (LSUC) = Barreau du Haut-Canada (BHC)
Website
United States
of America
Baltimore, Maryland
Maryland Academy of Sciences (MAS)
[No website found, as of 2007, July 28.]
Germany
Hannover
Naturhistorische Gesellschaft Hannover (NGH) (Natural History Society of Hannover)
[This Society was founded in 1797, and at some point prior to 1851 it was called the Verein zur Gründung eines Naturhistorischen Museums zu Hannover. In 1851 it became the Naturhistorische Gesellschaft zu Hannover. At some point between 1973 and 1986 it became the Naturhistorische Gesellschaft Hannover (Natural History Society of Hannover).]
[No website found, as of 2003, December 4.]
France
Abbeville, Somme
Société d'Émulation d'Abbeville
(Competitive Society of Abbeville)
[The Society was founded on 1797, October 4, evidently as the Société d'Émulation d'Abbeville. Later it had the following names: (1) Société Royale d'Émulation d'Abbeville; (2) Société Impériale d'Émulation d'Abbeville; (3) Société d'Émulation Historique et Littéraire d'Abbeville; and (4) Société d'Émulation d'Abbeville (its current name).]
[No website found, as of 2007, July 28.]
1798
Scotland
Glasgow
Chemical Society of Glasgow
[This Society was founded in 1798, according to p. 451 of Wilson, Forsyth J. The Chemical Society of Glasgow: Minute Book of 1800-1801. Annals of Science (1937) 2(4): 451-459. The latter source also makes it clear that it existed until at least 1801. NOTE: This Society may have been absorbed in 1803 by the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh (founded in 1771 as the Physico-Chirurgical Society). The Strathclyde University Archives, or a contemporaneous Encyclopaedia Britannia may shed some light here.]
Germany
Brockhausen, Westphalia
Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde Westphalens (Society of Researching Friends in Westphalia)
[This Society was founded in 1798. It was known variously as (1) Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde Westphalens; (2) Westphälische Naturforschende Gesellschaft zu Brockhausen; and (3) Königlich-Preußisch-Westphälische Naturforschende Gesellschaft. We have found no trace of its existence past 1806.]
Egypt
Cairo
Institut d'Égypte (Institute of Egypt)
[The Institut d'Égypte was founded by Napoleon Buonaparte in Cairo on 1798, August 22, less than two months after the French expedition had landed at Alexandria. The British victory in 1801, June forced the members of the Institut to return to France, to the bosom of the Institut de France. This appears to have ended the formal existence of the Institut d'Égypte, although for several years afterward, scholars who had previously been members of the Institut d'Égypte continued to publish findings that stemmed from their activities as members of that body.]
1799
United States
of America
Connecticut
Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences (CAAS)
Website
United Kingdom
London
Royal Institution of Great Britain
Website
France
Montpellier
Société de Médecine Pratique de Montpellier (Society of Practical Medicine of Montpellier)
[The Society was founded on 1799, February 15. Its name was also spelled Société de Médecine-Pratique de Montpellier. We have found no trace of its existence after 1848.]
France
Doubs
Société départementale d'Agriculture du Doubs (Departmental Society of Agriculture of Doubs)
[The Society was founded 1799, April 15 (26 Germinal An VII of the French Revolutionary calendar) as the Société Libre d'Agriculture, Commerce et Arts du département du Doubs. It later had the names: (1) Société d'Agriculture et Arts du département du Doubs; (2) Société d'Agriculture, Sciences Naturelles et Arts du Doubs; and (3) Société départementale d'Agriculture du Doubs. It is not clear whether this Society is still in existence.]

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